© President and Fellows of Harvard College
Identification and Creation
Object Number
Hubert Vos, American (Maastricht, Holland 1855 - 1935 New York, NY)
H. I. M., the Empress Dowager of China, Cixi (1835-1908)
Work Type
Physical Descriptions
Oil on canvas
169.6 x 123.6 cm (66 3/4 x 48 11/16 in.)
framed: 169.6 x 123.2 x 7 cm (66 3/4 x 48 1/2 x 2 3/4 in.)
Inscriptions and Marks
  • Signed: l.l., in Chinese: Respectfully painted by Hubert Vos
Collection of the artist, sold [through Vos sale, Kende Galleries, New York, October 24-25, 1940, no. 98]; to y Grenville L. Winthrop, bequest; to Fogg Art Museum, 1943
Acquisition and Rights
Credit Line
Harvard Art Museums/Fogg Museum, Bequest of Grenville L. Winthrop
Accession Year
Object Number
European and American Art
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Publication History

Virginia Anderson, "'A Semi-Chinese Picture': Hubert Vos and the Empress Dowager of China, East-West Interchanges in American Art: A Long and Tumultuous Relationship, ed. Cynthia Mills, Lee Glazer, and Amelia A. Goerlitz, Smithsonian Institution Press (Washington, D.C.), 97-109, pp. 97-98, 105-106, fig. 2

John Seed, Hubert Vos Court Painter of Empress Dowager Cixi, Arts of Asia, Arts of Asia Publications (Kowloon, Hong Kong, Jan/Feb 2015), Vol 45, No. 1, pp. 108-119, p. 114, repr. p. 115

"Watrous's Art Will Go on Sale", New York Times (New York, October 20, 1940), p. 54

Marina Warner, The Dragon Empress: Life and Times of Tz'u-hsi 1833-1908, Empress Dowager of China, Sphere Books, Ltd. (New York, 1974), reproduced in color on cover

Emily MacFarquhar, "The Dowager Got a Bad Rap", The New York Times Book Review (New York, NY, May 3, 1992), p. 12, reproduced in b/w

Sterling Seagrave, Dragon Lady: the Life and Legend of the Last Empress of China, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. (New York, NY, 1992), reproduced opposite p. 172

John Fraser, "The Wicked Witch of the East", Saturday Night (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 1993), pps. 10-11, reproduced in color p. 10

Timothy Anglin Burgard, American Art at Harvard: Cultures and Contexts, brochure, Harvard University Art Museums (Cambridge, MA, 1994), p. 12, cat. 87

Desiree Raemaekers, "Hubert Vos - Nederlandse schilder aan het Chinese hof", Nouveau, Nouveau (Hoofddorp, The Netherlands, March 2004), Jaargang 18, p. 85, reproduced in color; text pp. 84-87

Theodore E. Stebbins, Jr., Virginia Anderson, and Kimberly Orcutt, ed., American Paintings at Harvard, Volume Two, Paintings, Drawings, Pastels and Stained Glass by Artists Born 1826-1856, Harvard Art Museums and Yale University Press (U.S.) (Cambridge, MA and New Haven, CT, 2008), p. 386-87, cat. no. 418, reproduced in color, p. 387

Important Chinese Ceramics and Works of Art, auct. cat., Christie's, Hong Kong Limited (Hong Kong, December 2, 2015), p. 124, under lot 3129

Craig Clunas, Chinese Painting and Its Audiences, Princeton University Press and National Gallery of Art (Princeton, 2017), p. 171, fig. 5.15

Exhibition History

Annual Exhibition, 1906, Salon, Paris, Paris, 01/01/1906 - 12/31/1906

American Art at Harvard: Cultures and Contexts, Harvard University Art Museums, Cambridge, 10/01/1994 - 12/30/1994

Art of the Fan: China, Korea, Japan, Harvard Art Museums/Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Cambridge, 04/15/1995 - 10/08/1995

This record has been reviewed by the curatorial staff but may be incomplete. Our records are frequently revised and enhanced. For more information please contact the Division of European and American Art at am_europeanamerican@harvard.edu