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Gallery Text

This is a reduced version, with some variations, of one of two large mural paintings that Ingres completed for the Duc de Luynes’s castle in Dampierre between 1843 and 1847. Depicting the Golden Age, it refers to the mythical past described by ancient poets as the utopian existence humans first enjoyed after being created by the gods. Ingres outlined the iconography of his composition in a letter: “A heap of beautiful sloths! . . . The men of this generation knew nothing of old age. They lived for a long time and [were] always beautiful. . . . All this in a very varied nature, à la Raphael.” Ingres further invoked Raphael through some of the figures’ poses, in the arched shape of his picture, and by painting the mural on plaster, thereby inviting the comparison between his own work and Raphael’s famous frescoed murals in the papal apartments of the Vatican.

Identification and Creation
Object Number
1943.247
People
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, French (Montauban 1780 - 1867 Paris)
Title
The Golden Age
Other Titles
Alternate Title: Château de Dampierre
Classification
Paintings
Work Type
painting
Date
1862
Culture
French
Location
Level 2, Room 2200, European and American Art, 17th–19th century, The Emergence of Romanticism in Early Nineteenth-Century France
View this object's location on our interactive map
Physical Descriptions
Medium
Oil on paper mounted on panel
Dimensions
sight: 46.4 x 61.9 cm (18 1/4 x 24 3/8 in.)
framed: 63.5 x 79 cm (25 x 31 1/8 in.)
Inscriptions and Marks
  • Signed: l.l.: J. Ingres, Pint, MDCCCLXII / AETATIS LXXXII
Provenance
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, sold [through his sale, Hôtel Drouot, Paris, April 27, 1867, no 1 (bought in)]; to Mme. Delphine Ingres, née Ramel, the artist's widow, 1867, by descent; to Albert Ramel (her nephew), 1886, by descent; to Mme. Ramel (his widow), by descent; to her heirs, sold; to Grenville Lindall Winthrop [through Martin Birnbaum], 1929, bequest; to Fogg Art Museum, 1943.
Acquisition and Rights
Credit Line
Harvard Art Museums/Fogg Museum, Bequest of Grenville L. Winthrop
Accession Year
1943
Object Number
1943.247
Division
European and American Art
Contact
am_europeanamerican@harvard.edu
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Publication History

D'Arpentigny, "Exposition intime dans l'atelier de M. Ingres", Le Courrier artistique (June 19, 1864), p. 11

Philippe Burty, "Six tableaux nouveaux de M. Ingres", La Chronique des Arts et de la Curiosité (1864), vol. II, p. 204

Léon Lagrange, "Ingres", Le Correspondant (1867), vol. LXXI, p. 75

"Mouvement des Arts et de la Curiosité. Tableaux et Dessins d'Ingres", La Chronique des Arts et de la Curiosité (May 5 and 12, 1867), vol. V, p. 137, under no. 1

Catalogue des tableaux, études peintes, dessins et croquis de J.A.D. Ingres exposé dans les galeries de l'Ecole impériale des Beaux-Arts, exh. cat., Ad. Laine et J. Havard (Paris, France, 1867), no. 421

Charles Blanc, Ingres, sa vie et ses ouvrages, Vve. J. Renouard (Paris, France, 1870), pp. 205-206

Henri, Vicomte Delaborde, Ingres, sa vie, ses travaux, sa doctrine, d'apres les notices manuscrites et les lettres du maitre, H. Plon (Paris, France, 1870), no. 27, pp. 199-200

Edouard Gatteaux, Collection des 120 dessins, croquis et peintures de M. Ingres classés et mis en ordre par son ami Edouard Gatteaux, A. Guerinet (Paris, France, 1875), pl. 41

Henry Lapauze, Les dessins de J.-A.-D. Ingres du Musée de Montauban, J. E. Bulloz (Paris, France, 1901), pp. 146, 250

Jules Momméja, Ingres, H. Laurens (Paris, France, 1904), p. 107

Henry Lapauze, "Le 'Bain Turc' d'Ingres", Revue de l'art ancien et moderne (1905), vol. XVIII, pp. 387, 395

Jules Momméja, Collection Ingres au Musée de Montauban, Inventaire General des richeses d'art de la France. Province, Monuments civils (1905), p. 114 n. 1

Octave Uzanne, "The Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres", Magazine of Fine Arts I (1906), repr. p. 279

Téodor de Wyzewa, L'Oeuvre Peint de Jean-Dominique Ingres, Frédéric Gittler (Paris, France, 1907), pl. XXXIII, p. v

Augustine Boyer d'Agen (Jean-Auguste Boye), Ingres d'apres une correspondence inédit, H. Daragon (Paris, France, 1909), repr. opposite p. 464

Charles Saunier, "Exposition Ingres", Les Arts (July 1911), vol. X, pp. 8, 32

Georges LeComte, "Ingres, son oeuvre, son influence", Le Correspondent (1911), vols. II and III, pp. 337, 351

Henry Lapauze, "Jean Briant Paysagiste, maître d'Ingres, et le paysage dans l'oeuvre d'Ingres", Revue de l'art ancien et moderne (1911), vol. XXXIX, pp. 304-307, repr.

Exposition Ingres, exh. cat., Galerie Georges Petit (Paris, France, 1911), no. 63

Henry Lapauze, Ingres, sa vie & son oeuvre, G. Petit (Paris, France, 1911), p. 540, repr. p. 527

The Masterpieces of Ingres (1780-1867): Sixty Reproductions of Photographs from the Original Paintings, Gowans & Gray, Ltd. (London, England, 1913), pl. 40

Henry Lapauze, Exposition Ingres, exh. cat., Galerie Georges Petit (Paris, France, 1921), no. 49

Lili Frölich-Bum, Ingres, His Life and Art, William Heinemann, Ltd. (London, England, 1926), p. viii, pl. 74

Walter Pach, Ingres, Harper and Brothers Publishers (New York, NY and London, England, 1939), pp. 106-107, 136 [258], repr. opposite p. 259

Edward King, "Ingres as Classicist", The Journal of the Walters Art Gallery (1942), vol. V, p. 101

Chinese Sculpture, Bronzes, Jades, Paintings and Drawings, Egyptian and Persian sculpture, Pre-Columbian art; selected from the collection of Grenville Lindall Winthrop, exh. cat., Fogg Art Museum (Cambridge, MA, 1943), p. 3

Agnes Mongan, "Drawings by Ingres in the Winthrop Collection", Gazette des Beaux-Arts (July-December 1944), ser. 6, 26, p. 388, no. 1

Edgar P. Richardson, "Ingres' Self-Portrait in the Fogg Museum", The Art Quarterly (1944), vol. VII, p. 67

Jean Alazard, "Ingres et la Peinture Murale", Miscellanea Leo van Puyvelde (Brussels, Belgium, 1949), pp. 248, 249 n. 6

Jean Alazard, Ingres et l'Ingrisme, Michel (Paris, France, 1950), pp. 103, 151 n. 12

Paul J. Sachs, The Pocket Book of Great Drawings, Pocket Books, Inc. (New York, 1951), p. 94

A Loan Exhibition of Paintings and Drawings from the Ingres Museum at Montauban, exh. cat., Knoedler Galleries (New York, NY, 1952), p. [6]

Walter Friedlaender, David to Delacroix (Cambridge, MA, 1952), p. 88, fig. 48

Georges Wildenstein, Ingres, Phaidon Press (London, England, 1954), no. 301, p. 227, repr. as pl. 87

Norman Schlenoff, Ingres, ses sources littéraires, Presses Universitaires de France (Paris, France, 1956), p. 278, pl. XXXV, facing p. 256

Norman Schlenoff, "Ingres and the Classical World", Archaeology, Archaeological Institute of America (New York, NY, 1959), vol. XII, pp. 23-24, fig. 7

Martin Birnbaum, The Last Romantic (New York, NY, 1960), p. 190

Ingres and Degas: Two Classical Draughtsmen, exh. cat., Fogg Art Museum (Cambridge, MA, 1961), no. 11

Albert Edward Elsen, "Rodin's 'La Ronde' ", The Burlington magazine (1965), vol. CVII, pp. 291, fig. 5, 294

Pierre Viguié, "Ingres et l'Age d'Or", La Revue des Deux Mondes (December 15, 1967), p. 542

Ingres, exh. cat., Réunion des Musées Nationaux (Paris, France, 1967), p. 286, under no. 218

Ingres: Centennial Exhibition, 1867-1967. Drawings, Watercolors and Oil Sketches from American Collections, exh. cat., Fogg Art Museum (Cambridge, MA, 1967), p. x, under no. 87

Robert Rosenblum, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Harry N. Abrams, Inc. (New York, NY, 1967), pp. 167-169, pl. 47

Paintings from the Bequest of Grenville L. Winthrop shown in conjunction with the Ingres Centennial Exhibition, exh. cat., Fogg Art Museum (Cambridge, MA, 1967), no. VI

Emilio Radius and Ettore Camesasca, L'opera completa di Ingres, Rizzoli (Milan, Italy, 1968), no. 143b, p. 113, repr.

Dorothy W. Gillerman, ed., Grenville L. Winthrop: Retrospective for a Collector, exh. cat., Fogg Art Museum (Cambridge, 1969), p. 240

Daniel Ternois and Ettore Camesasca, Tout l'oeuvre peint d'Ingres (Paris, France, 1971), no. 144B, p. 113, repr.

Mathieu Méras, "Un Lettre inédite d'Ingres à Luigi Mussini et deux etudes inedites pour l'Age d'Or", Bulletin du Musée Ingres, Amis du Musée Ingres (Montauban, France, 1972), p. 22

Elisabeth Hardouin-Fugier, "Louis Janmot, élève d'Ingres, ami de Delacroix", Bulletin du Musée Ingres, Amis du Musée Ingres (Montauban, France, 1975), fig. 3

Exhibition of French Drawings Post Neo-Classicism, exh. cat., P. & D. Colnaghi & Co. Ltd. (London, England, 1975), under no. 108

Louis-Antoine Prat, "Trois dessins inedits d'Ingres pour l'Age d'Or", Bulletin du Musée Ingres, Amis du Musée Ingres (Montauban, France, December 1976), p. 31

Gianni Rizzoni and Fiorella Minervino, Ingres, Mondadori (Milan, Italy, 1976), p. 74, fig. 1

René Huyghe, La relève de l'imaginaire: la peinture francaise au XIXe siecle: realisme, romantisme, Flammarion (Paris, France, 1976), p. 231, fig. 249

Evelyne Pansu, "Quelques aperçus sur la thème iconographique de l'Age d'Or avant Ingres", Bulletin du Musée Ingres, Amis du Musée Ingres (Montauban, France, 1977), p. 102

Jon Whiteley, Ingres, Oresko Books Ltd. (London, England, 1977), no. 62, p. 81, repr.

Evelyne Pansu, Ingres Dessins, Chene (Paris, France, 1977), p. 19, repr. p. 27

Hans Naef, Die Bildniszeichnungen von J.-A.-D. Ingres (Bern, Switzerland, 1978), Vol. III, p. 423

Ingres: Drawings from the Musée Ingres at Montauban and Other Collections, exh. cat., Victoria and Albert Museum (London, England, 1979), above nos. 65-69, under no. 68, pp. 46-47

Marcel Giry, "Ingres et le Fauvisme", Actes du colloque international, Ingres et son influence (Montauban, France, 1980), pp. 55-60, pp. 56-57, repr. as fig. 2

Daniel Ternois, Ingres, Editions Nathan (Paris, France, 1980), pp. 108, 141, repr.

Gaetan Picon, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Quai des Celestins, 4 (New York, NY, 1980), p. 114; repr. in b/w p. 115

John Spike, "Ingres at the Fogg Art Museum", The Burlington Magazine (1981), vol. 123, no. 936, p. 190

25 Great Masters of Modern Art: Ingres, Kodansha (Tokyo, Japan, 1981), repr. in color no. 58

Marcel Giry, Le Fauvisme: ses origines, son évolutions, Editions Ides et Calendes (Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 1981), p. 23, 111, repr. in b/w as fig. 43

Kimio Nakayama and Shuji Takashina, Nu Feminin dans l'Art, vol. 8: Allegories et symboles II, Zauho Press/Editions Shueisha (Tokyo, Japan, 1981), repr. in color no. 41

William L. Pressly, The Life and Art of James Barry, Yale University Press (New Haven, CT and London, England, 1981), text pp. 203-204, repr. in b/w pl. 140

Hans Ebert, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Hanschelverlag Kunst und Gesellschaft (Berlin, Germany, 1982), repr. in color, no. 27

Patricia Condon, In Pursuit of Perfection: The Art of J.-A.-D. Ingres, exh. cat., Speed Art Museum (Louisville, KY, 1983), pp. 18, 19, repr.

Carol Ockman, "Astraea Redux: A Monarchist Reading of Ingres' Unfinished Murals at Dampierre", Arts Magazine (October 1986), fig. 12 and footnotes 3, 12, 17, and 52, pps. 26 and 27

Daniel Ternois, "Une amitié romaine: les lettres d'Ingres à Édouard Gatteaux", Actes du Colloque: Ingres et Rome, Montauban (Montauban, 1986), pp. 17-61, pp. 22, 58-61

Avigdor Arikha, J. A. D. Ingres: Fifty Life Drawings from the Musée Ingres at Montauban, exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (Houston, TX, 1986), p. 87, repr.

Jack Flam, Matisse: the Man and His Art 1869-1918, Cornell University Press (Ithaca, NY, 1986), repr. in b/w fig. 152, p. 159

Stefan Germer, Historizitat und Autonomie: Studien zu Wandbildern im Frankreich des 19 Jahrhunderts, Georg Olms Verlag (New York, NY and Hildesheim, 1988), repr. in b/w abb. 22, p. 508

Aline Dardel, "Le theme de l'Age d'Or dans la peinture", La Gazette de l'Hotel Drouot (January 27, 1989), no. 4, no. 4, pp. 64-65, repr.

Linda Nochlin, "Seurat's Grand Jatte: An Anti-Utopian Allegory", Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies, The Art Institute of Chicago (Chicago, IL, 1989), vol. XIV, no. 2, pp. 135-137, repr. in b/w p. 130

Dessins d'Ingres du musée de Montauban, exh. cat., Pavilion des Arts (Paris, France, 1989), pp. 366-381, repr. b/w p. 57

Katalin Geller, La Pintura Francesa del siglo XIX, Editorial arte y Literatura (Havana, Cuba, 1989), repr. in color no. 11

Edgar Peters Bowron, European Paintings Before 1900 in the Fogg Art Museum: A Summary Catalogue including Paintings in the Busch-Reisinger Museum, Harvard University Art Museums (Cambridge, MA, 1990), p. 112; repr. as no. 312

Annalisa Zanni, Ingres: catalogo completo dei dipinti, Cantini Editore (Florence, Italy, 1990), cat. 95; pp. 123-124, repr. in color

Katalin Geller, Malarstwo Francuskie w XIX wieku, Wydawnictwa Artystyczne i Filmowe Warszawa (Budapest, Hungary, 1990), repr. in color no. 11

Sarah Whitfield, Fauvism, Thames & Hudson (New York, NY, 1991), pp. 150-151, repr. in b/w as fig. 127

Gaetan Picon, Ingres, Skira Rizzoli (Geneva, Switzerland/New York NY, 1991), repr. in color p. 86

Dr. Christine Ekelhart-Reinwetter, J. A. D. Ingres 1780-1867: Zeichnungen und Olstudien aus dem musée Ingres, Montauban, Ferdinandeum/Albertina (Innsbruck/Vienna, Austria, 1991), pp. 263-264, repr. in b/w as abb. 109

James D. Herbert, Fauve Painting: the Making of Cultural Politics, Yale University Press (New Haven, CT and London, England, 1992), repr. in b/w fig. 63 p. 121

John Elderfield, Henri Matisse: A Retrospective, exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art, New York (New York, NY, 1992), pp. 54-55, repr. in b/w as fig. 32

Journey into the Masterpieces 19: The Canvas Seeks the Light, Kodansha Publisher (Tokyo, Japan, Spring 1992), repr. in color 4-37, p. 88

New History of World Art, vol. 19: Neoclassic Art, Revolutionary Epoque Art, Shogakukan Inc. (Tokyo, Japan, 1993), repr. in b/w fig. 82

Patricia Condon, "J. A. D. Ingres: Les dessins historiques achévés", Bulletin du Musée Ingres (1995), no. 67-68, pp. 3-86, pp. 15, 36

Georges Vigne, Dessins d'Ingres: Catalogue raisonné des dessins du musée de Montauban, Gallimard/Reunion des Musées Nationaux (Paris, France, 1995), p. 304

Georges Vigne, Ingres, Citadelles & Mazenod and Abbeville Press (Paris, France; New York, NY, 1995), pp. 259, 307-308, repr. in color as fig. 263

Daniel Ternois, "Ingres et la photographie", Bulletin du Musée Ingres (1997), no. 70, pp. 41-50, pp. 47, 50 n. 19

Paul Smith, "Joachim Gasquet, Virgil and Cézanne's Landscape", Apollo (October 1998), vol. CXLVIII, no. 439, pp. 11-23, p. 11, repr. in b/w as fig. 1

Daniel Ternois, ed., Lettres d'Ingres à Marcotte d'Argenteuil, Société de l'Histoire de l'Art Français (Nogent-le-Roi, France, 1999), p. 185 n. 3, under no. 116

Valérie Bajou, Monsieur Ingres, Editions Adam Biro (Paris, France, 1999), pp. 294-295; repr. in color as fig. 197

Gary Tinterow and Philip Conisbee, Portraits by Ingres: Image of an Epoch, exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, NY, 1999), pp. 359-361, fig. 206, p. 535

Jack Flam, "Matisse and Ingres", Apollo (October 2000), v. 152, no. 464, pp. 20-25, pp. 20-21, repr. in b/w as fig. 3

Christopher Green, Art in France, 1900-1940, Yale University Press (New Haven, CT, and London, 2000), p. 193, repr. as fig. 229

André Cariou and Patrick Le Nouëne, Dessins d'artistes: Les plus beaux dessins français de musées d'Angers, exh. cat., Somogy Éditions d'Art (Paris, France, 2000), p. 133, under no. 69, repr. as fig. 50

Uwe Fleckner, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres 1780-1867, Könemann Verlagsgesellschaft (Cologne, Germany, 2000), pp. 101-110; repr. in color pp. 106-107 as no. 103

Inken Freudenberg, "Der Zweifler Cézanne" (2001), Kehrer Verlag, pp. 104-105, repr. in b/w

Daniel Ternois, Lettres d’Ingres à Marcotte d’Argenteuil: dictionnaire, Librairie des Arts et Métiers-Ed. Jacques Laget (Nogent-le-Roi, France, 2001), pp. 31-32, 35 n. 41, 36-37, 46, 47 n. 22, 98

"New Spirits and Sacred Springs: Modern Art in France at the Turn of the Century", exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Montreal / Art Gallery of Ontario (Montreal / Toronto, 2002), repr. p. 40 as fig. 19

Chikashi Kitazaki and Mina Oya, ed., Between Reality and Dreams: Nineteenth Century British and French Art from the Winthrop Collection of the Fogg Art Museum, exh. cat., National Museum of Western Art (Ueno, 2002), pp. 66-67, cat. #1, color repr.

Margaret Werth, The Joy of Life: the idyllic in French art, circa 1900, University of California Press (Berkeley, CA, 2002), p. 8, repr. as fig. 5

Stephan Wolohojian, ed., A Private Passion: 19th-Century Paintings and Drawings from the Grenville L. Winthrop Collection, Harvard University, exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art and Yale University Press (U.S.) (New York, 2003), no. 81, pp. 207-209, repr. in color

Stephan Wolohojian, Ingres, Burne-Jones, Whistler, Renoir... La Collection Grenville L. Winthrop, exh. cat., Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon and Réunion des Musées Nationaux (Paris, France, 2003), no. 81, pp. 217-219, repr. in color

Robert Dupin, "La Collection Winthrop", Universalia, Encyclopaedia Universalis (Paris, France, 2004), pp. 343-344, p. 344

Alastair Wright, Matisse and the Subject of Modernism, Princeton University Press (Princeton NJ, 2004), p. 97, pl. 49

Alt dandser, tro mit Ord!, exh. cat., Thorvaldsens Museum (Copenhagen, Denmark, 2005), pp. 74-75, 78, repr. in color as fig. 8

M. Battistini, Symbols and Allegories in Art, J. Paul Getty Museum (2005), repr. in color p. 91, under "The Ages of the World."

Vincent Pomarède, Stéphane Guégan, Louis-Antoine Prat, and Eric Bertin, Ingres 1780-1867, exh. cat., Editions Gallimard (Paris, France, 2006), pp. 340-348, 361; repr. p. 361 as ill. 216

Karin H. Grimme, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, 1780-1867, Taschen GmbH (Cologne, Germany, 2006), p. 84; repr. in color pp. 82-83

Linda Nochlin, "Seurat's Grand Jatte: An Anti-Utopian Allegory", Critical Readings in Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, ed. Mary Tompkins Lewis, University of California Press (Berkeley, 2007), p. 255

Louis-Antoine Prat, Le dessin français au XIXe siècle, Somogy Éditions d'Art (Paris, 2011), p. 187

Charles Dempsey, Joseph J. Rishel, and George T.M. Shackelford, Gauguin, Cézanne, Matisse: Visions of Arcadia, exh. cat., Philadelphia Museum of Art (Philadelphia, 2012), pp. 20-22, reproduced fig. 19

Impressionist and Modern Art Evening Sale, auct. cat., Sotheby's, New York (May 2, 2012), p. 142, fig. 2

Vincent Pomarède and Carlos G. Navarro, Ingres, exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado (Madrid, 2015)

Tour de Force: William Bouguereau's "La Jeunesse de Bacchus", auct. cat., Sotheby's, New York (New York, May 14, 2019), pp. 34-37, repr. pp. 35 and 36 as fig. 22

Exhibition History

Tableaux, etudes peintes, dessins et croquis de J.-A.-D. Ingres peintre d'histoire, sénateur, membre de l'Institut, École Impériale des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 04/10/1867 - 12/31/1867

Exposition Ingres, Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, 04/26/1911 - 05/14/1911

Exposition Ingres, Chambre Syndicale de la Curiosité et des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 05/08/1921 - 06/05/1921

Chinese sculpture, bronzes, jades, paintings and drawings, Egyptian and Persian sculpture, Pre-Columbian art : selected from the collection of Grenville Lindall Winthrop, Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, 10/01/1943 - 02/28/1944

Ingres and Degas: Two Classical Draughtsmen, Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, 04/24/1961 - 05/20/1961

Paintings from the Bequest of Grenville L. Winthrop shown in conjunction with the Ingres Centennial Exhibition, Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, 02/12/1967 - 04/09/1967

Master Paintings from the Fogg Collection, Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, 04/13/1977 - 08/31/1977

Works by J.-A.-D. Ingres in the Collection of the Fogg Art Museum, Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, 10/17/1980 - 12/07/1980

Between Reality and Dreams: Nineteenth Century British and French Art from the Winthrop Collection of the Fogg Art Museum, National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo, 09/14/2002 - 12/08/2002

A Private Passion: 19th-Century Paintings and Drawings from the Grenville L. Winthrop Collection, Harvard University, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon, Lyon, 03/15/2003 - 05/26/2003; National Gallery, London, 06/25/2003 - 09/14/2003; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 10/23/2003 - 01/25/2004

For Students of Art and Lovers of Beauty: Highlights from the Collection of Grenville L. Winthrop, Harvard University Art Museums, Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, 04/16/2004

32Q: 2200 19th Century, Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, 11/10/2015 - 01/01/2050

Subjects and Contexts

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Related Works

This record has been reviewed by the curatorial staff but may be incomplete. Our records are frequently revised and enhanced. For more information please contact the Division of European and American Art at am_europeanamerican@harvard.edu