- Gallery Text
In this allegorical portrait, America is personified as a white marble goddess. Dressed in classical attire and crowned with thirteen stars representing the original thirteen colonies, the figure gives form to associations Americans drew between their democracy and the ancient Greek and Roman republics.
Like most nineteenth-century American marble sculptures, America is the product of many hands. Powers, who worked in Florence, modeled the bust in plaster and then commissioned a team of Italian carvers to transform his model into a full-scale work. Nathaniel Hawthorne, who visited Powers’s studio in 1858, captured this division of labor with some irony in his novel The Marble Faun: “The sculptor has but to present these men with a plaster cast . . . and, in due time, without the necessity of his touching the work, he will see before him the statue that is to make him renowned.”
- Identification and Creation
- Object Number
Hiram Powers, American (Woodstock, NY 1805 - 1873 Florence, Italy)
- Other Titles
- Former Title: Liberty
- Work Type
- Creation Place: North America, United States
Level 2, Room 2100, European and American Art, 17th–19th century, Centuries of Tradition, Changing Times: Art for an Uncertain Age
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- Physical Descriptions
- 71.1 x 49.5 x 35.6 cm (28 x 19 1/2 x 14 in.)
- Inscriptions and Marks
- Signed: on back: H. Powers Sculp.
- Sold to father of Mrs. T. O. Richardson, 1865; Mrs. T. O. Richardson; her gift to Harvard College, 1924; transferred to Fogg Art Museum, 1958.
- Acquisition and Rights
- Credit Line
- Harvard Art Museums/Fogg Museum, Transfer from Harvard College, Gift of Mrs. T. O. Richardson
- Accession Year
- Object Number
- European and American Art
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- Replica of the original of 1850-54.
- Publication History
Henry T. Tuckerman, Book of the Artists: American Artist Life, Comprising Biographical and Critical Sketches of American Artists, Preceded by an Historical Account of the Rise and Progress of Art in America, Putnam (New York, NY, 1867), p. 290
Nathaniel Hawthorne, French and Italian Notebooks (Boston, MA, 1873), p. 431
Oliver W. Larkin, Art and Life in America, Rinehart (New York, NY, 1960), p. 180
James Jackson Jarves, The Art-Idea, ed. Dr. Benjamin Rowland, Jr., Belknap Press (Cambridge, MA, 1960), p. 215
Neil Harris, The Artist in American Society: The Formative Years, 1790-1860, Braziller (New York, NY, 1966), p. 408, n. 78; reproduced fig. 13
Wayne Craven, Sculpture in America, Thomas Y. Crowell Company (New York, NY, 1968), p. 132
H. Wade White, "Nineteenth Century American Sculpture at Harvard, a Glance at the Collection", Harvard Library Bulletin (Cambridge, MA, October 1970), vol. XVIII, no. 4, p. 362, pl. VI
Cornelius C. Vermeule III, "America's Neoclassic Sculptors: Fallen Angels Resurrected", The Magazine Antiques (November 1972), p. 874-875, fig. 14
Kenyon Castle Bolton, III, Peter G. Huenink, Earl A. Powell III, Harry Z. Rand, and Nanette C. Sexton, American Art at Harvard, exh. cat., Fogg Art Museum (Cambridge, MA, 1972), cat. 58, ill.
Richard P. Wunder, Hiram Powers: Vermont Sculptor, 1805-1873, Vol. II, University of Delaware Press/ Associated University Presses (Newark DE/London and Toronto, 1991), p. 124, cat. 22
Timothy Anglin Burgard, American Art at Harvard: Cultures and Contexts, brochure, Harvard University Art Museums (Cambridge, MA, 1994), p. 11, cat. 37
Stephan Wolohojian and Alvin L. Clark, Jr., Harvard Art Museum/ Handbook, ed. Stephan Wolohojian, Harvard Art Museum (Cambridge, 2008), ill. p. 148
- Exhibition History
American Art at Harvard, Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, 04/19/1972 - 06/18/1972
American Art at Harvard: Cultures and Contexts, Harvard University Art Museums, Cambridge, 10/01/1994 - 12/30/1994
32Q: 2100 19th Century, Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, 11/01/2014 - 01/01/2050
- Subjects and Contexts
Google Art Project
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