- Identification and Creation
- Object Number
- Funerary Relief of a Woman and Two Children
- Work Type
- sculpture, bust
- c. 150 CE
- Creation Place: Ancient & Byzantine World, Asia, Palmyra (Syria)
- Roman Imperial period, Middle
Level 3, Room 3710, North Arcade
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- Physical Descriptions
- 71.5 cm h x 56.5 cm w x 27 cm d (28 1/8 x 22 1/4 x 10 5/8 in.)
- Purchased by Richard Norton in Damascus in the spring of 1908.
- Aquisition and Rights
- Credit Line
- Harvard Art Museums/Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Gift of Alden Sampson, Richard Norton, and Edward W. Forbes
- Accession Year
- Object Number
- Asian and Mediterranean Art
- The relief depicts a woman in elaborate costume flanked by two children above, left and right. The monument has been dated by Harald Ingholt. The woman in the center is touching the edge of her veil with the usual gesture of her raised right hand; she holds a ceremonial object, like a cord with pomegranate tassels, against her upper stomach with the left hand. She wears jewelry where it is possible for display, from gold bands in the hair to triple-pendant earrings, to four different types of necklaces, to bracelets on both wrists, and, finally, to rings on her fingers.
The children behind her seem to be a young girl with a necklace or apron of fruits, on her right, and a slightly older boy on her left, a ceremonial tassel in his left hand.
There are three inscriptions on the relief. The one belonging to the woman is located to the right of the veil and extends to the left side of the head of the child on the right. It reads "daughter of Hayran, Alas!" The inscription to the right of the child on the right, belongs to that child and reads "Hayran, her son." The inscription on the left, belonging to the child on the left, reads "Simon, her son."
Catalogue entry from the publication: Stone Sculptures: The Greek, Roman, and Etruscan Collections of the Harvard University Art Museums; Cornelius C. Vermeule and Amy Brauer, Harvard University Art Museums, Cambridge, 1990.
- Re-View Exhibition, Spring 2008, gallery label information:
At Palmyra, a caravan city on the eastern edge of the Roman Empire, bodies were placed in sarcophagi that were inserted into chambers sealed by carved capstones. The reliefs identified the entombed individuals. This slab with the bust of Ba'altega, daughter of Hayran, is a typical example. It draws attention to her family relations by naming her father and representing her two sons, Hayran and Simon. A similar emphasis on family may be found on the Greek Stele of Melisto (1961.86), to the left. Conspicuous display of adornment advertises the family's wealth. The woman touching her veil is a gesture derived from Greek tradition,
whereas Ba'altega's clothing-a headdress comprising bandeau, turban, and veil-and the frontality and stylized features of the composition set this monument firmly in a local, Palmyrene context.
A head of a lady carved in the same style but with hair arranged somewhat differently has been placed by Harald Ingholt in Group II of the Palmyrene funerary monuments and dated about 150-200 CE (Comstock, Vermeule, 1976, p. 258, no. 404).
It has been observed that the object in the left hand of the Harvard relief might be a distaff or similar tool for spinning, but 'Ala the daughter of Iarhai in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen, holds a similar thing almost horizontallly, and it looks like a folded whip with a pincone top. See Colledge, 1976, fig. 64. Since other Palmyrene men and women hold a variety of complex, symbolic objects in the left hand (although one man, in Paris, is clearly a scribe with stylus and tablets), it seems likely that this folded-over length of tassel on the end of a stick is a ticket of passage to a religious cult or the world beyond the tomb rather than a mere object of domestic industry. The pomegranates held in Palmyrene peoples' hands fall into the same category.
- Publication History
Waldemar Déonna, "Collections archeologiques et historiques, Collections Fol, Salle des Armures, Collections lapidaires", Genava, ville de Geneve bulletin du Musee d'Art et d'Histoire (1923), vol. I, p. 52
Waldemar Déonna, "Monuments Orientaux du Musee de Geneve", Syria, Revue d'Art Oriental et d'Archeologie (1923), no. 4, p. 231
Harald Ingholt, Studier over palmyrenske skulptur, C.A. Reitzel (Copenhagen, Denmark, 1928), pp. 132, ps 374, 158
Edward Waldo Forbes, Yankee Visionary, Fogg Art Museum (Cambridge, MA, 1971), The Checklist, p. 150
Cornelius C. Vermeule, III, Greek and Roman Sculpture in America, University of California Press (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA, 1981), p. 380, no. 329
Cornelius C. Vermeule, III and Amy Brauer, Stone Sculptures: The Greek, Roman and Etruscan Collections of the Harvard University Art Museums, Harvard University Art Museums (Cambridge, MA, 1990), p. 163, no. 149
Stephan Wolohojian, ed., Harvard Art Museum/Handbook, exh. cat. (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2008)
[Reproduction Only], Persephone, Vol. 11, No. 1, Spring 2011, p. 14.
- Exhibition History
Roman Gallery Installation (long-term), Harvard University Art Museums, Cambridge, 09/16/1999 - 01/20/2008
Gods in Color: Painted Sculpture of Classical Antiquity, Harvard University Art Museums, Cambridge, 09/22/2007 - 01/20/2008
Re-View: S422 Ancient & Byzantine Art & Numismatics, Harvard Art Museums/Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Cambridge, 04/12/2008 - 06/18/2011
- Subjects and Contexts
Artstor Digital Library
Google Art Project
- Related Works
- Verification Level
3 - Good. Object is well described and information is vetted